The historic love story between Medea and Jason that began with their epic voyage on the Argo ends in Euripides’ famous tragedy as Medea, spurned by her husband, must grapple with her past and create a future in a world that does not want her.

Founded in 1971, the Classical Greek Theatre Festival is committed to producing classical Greek dramas to provide the unique educational opportunity to appreciate these ancient plays in action on stage. CGTF is constantly working to grow our educational resources and put them in the hands of teachers, students, and life-long learners to augment our performances.


April Fossen headshotApril was previously seen in the Classical Greek Theatre Festival as Deianeira in Women of Trachis. Other local credits include Mercury, Bull Shark Attach, and Blackberry Winter (Salt Lake Acting Company; Mestiza (or, Mixed), The Audacity, and Pilot Program (Plan-B Theatre Company); A Streetcar Named Desire (The Grand Theatre); Stage Kiss (Wasatch Theatre Company); August: Osage County (Silver Summit/Utah Rep); and Titus Andronicus (Pinnacle Acting Company). Regional credits include work with Berkeley Repertory Theatre and the California Shakespeare Festival.


Mark Fossen headshotMark Fossen has worked as an actor, director, dramaturg, and teacher in the Salt Lake Area since 2005. As an actor, he has been seen in work with Plan-B Theatre, PYGmalion, Meat & Potato, and more. Directing credits include The Grand, HCTO, Westminster, and others. National credits include the California and Idaho Shakespeare Festivals, Berkeley Repertory Theatre, and Chicago’s Steppenwolf. BA, University of Utah. MFA, University of Idaho.

Tom Moseman headshotTom is a recent transplant to Utah after 30+ years in New York. Following a career in the business world, Tom is excited to get back to his first love – Theatre. Developing new scripts has been the focus of his Theatre experience; first as the co-founder of the Bloomington Playwrights Project (now called Constellation Stage and Screen), then at the New Playwrights Theatre in Washington, DC, and during his grad school years in Iowa. Trained as an Actor and Director, Tom has a BA from Indiana University and an MFA from the University of Iowa.

Vicki Purgmire headshotVicki has been acting, directing, and producing theater in the Salt Lake area for over 35 years. Her education comes from Southern Utah University, the University of Utah, and life. Medea is her second show with the Greek Theater Festival having performed in Antigone in 2012. These Greek plays are some of the most challenging theater experiences of her career. She believes Euripides would be shocked and pleased to know his show was still being performed 2,400 years later.

Ariana Farber headshotAriana holds a BFA from the University of Utah’s Actor Training Program (Magna Cum Laude) and has worked professionally in local and regional theater for over 20 years. Most recently she wrote, co-produced, and starred in Role Play at the Salt Lake Fringe Festival, with Immigrant’s Daughter, a local theater and performing arts company for which she serves as managing director.

Viviane Truman headshotViviane Turman is a Westminster alumnus with a BFA in Theatre Performance. Their regional acting credits include The Fossil Record (Elise), To Kill A Mockingbird (Mayella Ewell), The Drowning Girls (Margaret), The Moors (Marjory), Malleable Vulnerability (Artist), Mr. Burns (Jenny/Lisa), The Women of Trachis (Chorus), Macbeth (Witch 3/ Lennox), Herakles (Protestor/Chorus, Puppeteer), and Didn’t Go as Planned (Kathy).

Shane Farber headshotShane is a fourth-grade student at Redeemer Lutheran School. He has performed as a chorus member in many school plays and musicals. He loves to play the piano and sing in the school choir.

Heidi Farber headshotHeidi Farber is a seventh-grade student at Redeemer Lutheran School. She has performed in many school plays and musicals. Her favorite role was as Imogene Herdman in the Best Christmas Pageant ever. She is an avid musician, and she plays the piano, electric guitar, rhythm guitar, and ukulele.

Katelynn Smith headshotKatelynn Smith is currently a Senior Theatre Performance major at Westminster College. Some favorite shows include The Thanksgiving Play (Logan), As You Like It (Jaques), and Mamma Mia! (Donna).

Emily Kitterer headshotEmily Kitterer is an Alumni of Westminster College with her BFA in Theatre Performance. Some of her credits include: Defying Gravity (Teacher), As You Like It (Duke Senior),Stop Kiss! (Nurse), Gaslight (Nancy), Men on Boats (Seneca Howland), Tragedy Averted (Police Officer) with Pygmalion Productions, Wild Magic, Quiet Chaos (Silas) with Comet Sweeper Theatre and SNAPSHOT (Isabel) with Sasquatch Theatre Co.

Production Team

Emilio Casillas headshotEmilio has been working with the Classical Greek Theatre Festival since 2011, going from crew (Iphigenia in Tauris ’11), to stage manager (Oedipus, ’13), to assistant director (Electra ’16, Herakles ’17), to director (Prometheus ’19) and now proudly serves as the Artistic Director of this distinct organization as it carries on into its fifth decade. Recent scenic design credits include La Bohème, L’elisir d’amore, and A Little Night Music for Westminster Opera Studio as well as The Christians and Eurydice at Good Co. Theatre. Recent directing credits include Man and Moon with Good Company Theatre, The Telephone and Il Combatimento di Tancredi with Opera Contempo, Opera Scenes with La Musica Lirica (an Opera Training program in Italy), and coming up he will be directing Sleeping Giant at Salt Lake Acting Company.

Stephanie Stroud headshotStephanie Stroud is an Associate Professor of Theatre at Westminster College. As an actor and director, Stephanie has worked with such Chicago companies as Mortar Theater Company, Saltbox Collective, Pegasus Players, Chicago Dramatists, Something Marvelous, Steppenwolf, Victory Gardens, Profiles, and Second City. Stephanie is a member of the Stage Directors and Choreographers Society, Actors' Equity, American Theater Movement Educators, and Lincoln Center Director’s Lab.

Meghan Wall headshotMeghan Durham Wall is a dance artist, educator, and advocate who lives, works, and creates on the ancestral lands of the Ute, Goshute, and Eastern Shoshone people. She focuses on community engagement and human connection through dance. Meghan’s creative works as a professional performer and choreographer have been produced in Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Singapore.

Kyle Lawrence headshotKyle has 15+ years of experience as a performer, designer, composer, and director. He studied musical theater at Weber State University, and has a Level 1 Certification in Evidence Based Voicework. He’s composed musicals with his partner, Porter, and frequently creates music for Good Company Theatre in Ogden. Sound design credits with Good Company Theatre include Man and Moon, Two Character Play, Ripped, The Jungle, The Children.

Spencer has been working with the Classic Greek Theatre Festival for the past 11 seasons and is the Technical Director at Westminster College. Spencer has been freelance designing in the Salt Lake area for the past 24 years and has worked with many company's including Hale Center Theatre, Salt Lake Grand Theatre, Westminster College, Red Hot 4th, and the Utah Jazz. Prior to returning to Salt Lake, Spencer worked in New York City for nine years with the Trisha Brown Dance Company, Bill T. Jones, Mikhail Baryshnikov, and the Puerto Rican Travelling Theatre. Spencer has always enjoyed the new adventures that come from working on the Greek Theatre Festival.

Medea Lesson Plans

Arts Education Consultant Allen Smith has prepared a 90 minute multimedia lesson plan "Medea: Justice or Revenge?" to introduce Jr. High and High School students to the plot points and themes of Euripides' Medea. This lesson plan is designed to utilize the Nearpod Software, which is an education software available to all public School Educators in Utah K-12. However, the lesson plan can be led without utilizing Nearpod, but we strongly recommend utilizing it. The video below is included in the Nearpod, but is here for your use as well.

If you have questions about this lesson plan, please contact Allen Smith at

Download Medea Lesson Plan

Medea Overview Video

Library Special Collection

The Giovale Library at Westminster College houses a special collection of almost 100 titles relating to ancient Greek drama and history that are available for check-out by campus and community members alike.

View the Classical Greek Theatre Festival Special Collection

Archive Recordings

The Classical Greek Theatre Festival has made archival recordings of past productions available to view for your enjoyment and education. Browse the full collection, and be sure to share your thoughts in the comments sections.


In its 49th season, the Classical Greek Theatre Festival presents a new production of Aeschylus’ tragic masterpiece Prometheus Bound using a translation by William Matthews. Directed by Emilio Casillas, with set by Spencer Brown, and costumes by Andrea Davenport, this ancient/modern production of Prometheus Bound tells of the fall of the Titan Prometheus at the hands of the newly crowned king of the gods, the Olympian Zeus. Bound to a rock at the bottom of a ravine in the far flung Caucasus, Prometheus is visited by the Oceanids - nymphs of the world’s many springs, their father Oceanus - the primordial world-encircling river, Io—the mortal woman loved by Zeus and harried by Hera, and finally by Hermes—the young Olympian chosen as the emissary of Zeus.

The Utah Humanities Council and the Classical Greek Theatre Festival is providing this complete study guide for Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound by Jim Svendsen, festival founder and production dramaturg.

I. Backgrounds


"It is, of course, by his radical adaptation of this triangle -Prometheus, Zeus, and man- that Aeschylus has transformed the Prometheus myth. To put the difference in the broadest possible terms, the Hesiodic Prometheus, by his deceptions and frustrations of Zeus in his relations with mankind, is presented (however artificially) as the indirect cause of all of man’s woes; the Aeschylean Prometheus, on the other hand, by his interventions on behalf of man is presented as the savior of mankind, without whom man would have ceased to exist and with whose help he progresses from mere substance to a state of civilization." D.J. Conacher

"Fire is essential to civilization for warmth, cooking, and even the most rudimentary technology In pre-industrial societies all over the world, myths have recounted man’s acquisition of this divine spark through a theft from the gods, usually performed by a bird or an animal, sometimes by a man, or even one of the gods themselves. For the Greeks, it was the pre-Olympian god Prometheus who was generally credited with the theft." Mark Griffith


"A prolonged residence in Sicily after the composition of the Oresteia (458 BCE) could in itself explain the abrupt jolt forward -rather than break- in the thought and style of Aeschylus which has so surprised us in the Prometheus. At this time Sicily was the home of the philosopherpoet Empedocles; but (most interesting in the present context) the rhetoricians Corax and Tisias and the young sophist/rhetorician Gorgias were now also at work in it. Their activity therefore coincided almost exactly with our postulated ‘last phase’ of Aeschylus’ career and must have overlapped with his final Sicilian residence of 458-456. In that way the new sophistic/rhetorical influence that is so apparent in the Prometheus becomes immediately intelligible." C.J. Herington


"Interest in Aeschylean drama continues because through myth he presents universal conflicts -within ourselves, our families, and our societies- without settling for easy answers. In this, Aeschylus resembles modern man’s willingness to accept uncertainty and ambiguity in his own life and to acknowledge his weaknesses the face of forces beyond his control. Yet the optimism of Aeschylus, patent in the Oresteia and glimpsed in the Prometheus Bound, inspires us to continue the present struggle. If Aristophanes, at the end of the fifth century, resurrected Aeschylus to recapture the past, we, at the end of the twentieth, have kept him alive to give ourselves the strength to face the future." Lois Spatz

"For if one thing is absolutely certain, it is that Aeschylus never meant the extant play to be a self-contained dramatic unity -that when Prometheus vanishes into the rock at its end that we are witnessing the coda of Aeschylus' symphony, but only the close of a movement. The composition and order of the sequence of Prometheus-plays has been very much debated, but the majority of students of the subject would probably agree with the following statement. The Prometheus Bound was undoubtedly followed by a play entitled Prometheus Unbound of which quite a number of fragments survive. There is some very slight evidence to indicate that the Unbound in turn may have been followed by a third play, the Prometheus Pyrphoros ('FireCarrier') of which there are only three, not very informative, fragments. This sequence presumably constituted a tragic trilogy, to be performed together, on one occasion, just like the Oresteia (and indeed like the majority of Aeschylus' known productions). It will therefore not have been three dramas as one superdrama, with the action and the ideas developing continuously from the first movement to the last." C.J. Herington

II. Plot Action and Formal Structure

  • Prologue: Might, Force and Hephaistos chain a silent Prometheus and threaten violence Prometheus' aria/soliloquy of defiance to the elements.
  • Parodos: Entrance song of the Chorus of sympathetic Daughters of Ocean who request that he reveal the cause of Zeus' harsh punishment (lyric dialogue).
  • Episode I: Arrival of Ocean who attempts to reconcile Prometheus with Zeus with the two cautionary tales of the Titans Atlas and Typhon.
  • Stasimon I: Chorus lament the tyranny of Zeus, list a number of fellow-mourners from Asia, Caucasus and Colchis and focus on the sufferings of the Titan Atlas.
  • Episode II: in two long monologues Prometheus describes the revolution he has worked for mankind, helping them to advance from savagery to civilization.
  • Stasimon II: The Chorus pray never to incur Zeus' anger, remind him how powerless mortals are and how worse his life is now.
  • Episode III: The human/heifer Io enters, a victim of Zeus' lust, and tells the tale of her rape and enforced wanderings followed by Prometheus' prophecy of her future destiny.
  • Stasimon III: The Chorus reflect on the terrors of Io’s treatment by Zeus, praise a marriage of equals and fear lest Zeus lust after them.
  • Episode IV: Hermes tries to learn the fatal secret, but Prometheus continues his defiance bringing on the final cataclysm.
  • Exodos: Conclusion in anapests with an emotional aria by Prometheus describing the storm protesting his innocence: "see how I suffer, how unjust it is."

III. Characters


"Aeschylus had from the Hesiodic tradition a typical trickster hero, similar to the Scandinavian Loki. This character, already a serious figure in Hesiod, becomes in the Prometheus Bound the archetypal rebel 'an eternal martyr chained to a pillar, at the ends of the earth, condemned forever because he refuses to ask forgiveness" (Camus). "Unlike Loki, he is essentially identified with humanity, even though he is a god; not a little of his interest, in fact, stems from this ambiguous divine/human aspect." James C. Hogan

"Against this unseen, but all-seeing and ever-threatening Zeus the dramatist has pitted a hero of unusual stature. In the play Prometheus' knowledge and cleverness appear to rival or excel Zeus’. His prophetic powers are constantly emphasized, and Zeus is well aware of his need of them. So, too there is no disputing the fact that his skills have saved man from extinction, given them Hope, and put them on the road to civilization. The archaic fire-demon and Attic potter-god has been transformed into culture hero on the grandest scale, an enemy to give Zeus pause."


"For the Zeus of this play turns out to be a very different figure from the just and impressive ruler of Hesiod's universe. He is described as a harsh and selfish despot, who rules by force rather than by law, angrily crushes all opposition without mercy, suppresses freedom of speech, mistrusts and mistreats his supporters, threatens the annihilation of the human race, and wrecks the life of the innocent Io through his lust. We are constantly reminded that Zeus is young, and his government newly established; and, though there is no sign of relenting in this play, we are told that he will somehow be reconciled with Prometheus in the end." Mark Griffith "Zeus is a tyrant, and his rule a tyranny. We learn this from his own ministers, who are proud of it, from Prometheus, who denounces it, from the Oceanids, who deplore it, and from Oceanus, who is resigned to it." George Thomson

IV. Themes and Greek Drama as a Theater of Ideas

"Power is the play's nub. As ever, those who have it use it against others partly to prove they have it, and partly because they can. But those who don’t have power have speech (and, because of Prometheus, humans have the power to write things down). And this play seems with boaster, taunters, whiners, phrase makers, and filibusterers." William Matthews

"Philia (friendship, relationship) involves socio-political ties as well as familial: like Latin amicitia, it may denote connection and obligation rather than positive affection. But both sense contribute to P.'s feelings of outrage at Zeus' mistreatment of him, for he and his brothers have been expelled and humiliated by an upstart young nephew who owes his throne to P.'s friendly efforts and has forgotten all the loyalty that is due." Mark Griffith

"As in most Aeschylean conflicts, the dispute between Zeus and Prometheus is a matter of dike (justice, revenge, penalty) on both sides. The dike on Zeus' side is the result of Prometheus’ theft of fire; at the end of the play Prometheus accuses Zeus of acting without dike. Both accusations, that Prometheus once violated dike and that Zeus no acts without dike, are valid." Michael Gagarin

"Every scene, except for the Prologue, is built around a prophecy of some kind from P. Not only are P.'s predictions themselves at times enigmatic or contradictory, but they are presented in a peculiar, piecemeal fashion with frequent interruptions and delays." Mark Griffith

V. Dramatic Strategies

"The choral odes of Prom. are relatively short and limited in their scope and emotional range. They emphasize the chorus’ sympathy and pity; they powerfully reinforce the sense of shock and outrage aroused by Io; but seldom these odes are larger questions raised, or opinions offered, about the nature of Zeus’ rule or about the hope of a future reconciliation between P. and Zeus." Mark Griffith

"In many ways the Prometheus Bound is an anomaly, and the musical design of the play provides no exception. The first musical moment is the monody by Prometheus, but there is no Aeschylean precedent for a solo monody by a main character. Then the chorus enters but with no anapests, and the plays ends not with the sounds of music but the sounds of chaos." William Scott

"At the beginning of the play the silence of Prometheus was a mark of his powerlessness. At the end, though he has had more to say than everyone else put together, his silence on the one point that matters is a mark of his predominant power. And it is that movement in the balance of power that constitutes the real action of the Prometheus Bound." Alan Sommerstein

Aeschylus' use off foils, characters in some ways similar but in others radically different e.g. Prometheus and Zeus both divine, arrogant, intransigent and yet contrasting in pity or lack thereof, approach to mankind, treatment of females etc. e.g. Prometheus and Io both victims of Zeus, both destined for reconciliation yet differing in movement, gender, awareness, status etc.

"The main recurrent images of the play are those of disease and cure and of the capture, taming and harnessing of animals. The related images of hunting and snaring have a similar effect. As in many Greek poems, a number of images from seafaring also occur." Mark Griffith

"Prometheus Bound is a cosmic pageant and a chance for Aeschylus to revel in his knowledge of geography. The wanderings off Io, foreseen by Prometheus, describe the Near East, starting from the southern Caucasus and proceeding southward along the Ionian coast, to end in Egypt. In the course of this excursion through exotic place names, Aeschylus trained his sly glance on a river he himself invented: the river Hybristes, the River Insolence." Palmer Bovie

"The spectacular devices, and particularly the use of flying, are integral to the development of this plot. The threat of danger from the air hovers over the play because the audience, from its knowledge of the myth, is expecting the entrance of Zeus’ eagle to torment further the helpless Prometheus. Thus the entrances of the chorus and Oceanus in flight, so carefully described, intensify the initial sense of Prometheus’ immobility and impotence and emphasize Zeus’ power." Lois Spatz

"All in all, however, Prom. must have been one of the most spectacular and visually sensational tragedies ever presented on the fifth-century stage; the unexpected sights and sounds, entrances and exits, provide relief and variety to a rather static and monotonous series of scenes." Mark Griffith

"But there is another sound midway between cacophony and rational speech –groaning which becomes symbolic of the feelings of pain and pity for another’s pain. The various characters’ cries, dirges sung and danced, the numerous allusions to lament, all call attention to this different aspect of Prometheus’ power, his ability to feel for others." Lois Spatz

VI. Interpretations

"In Aristotelian terms, it is a ‘simple’ drama: i.e. it contains no peripateia (reversal) or anagnorisis (recognition); P. learns nothing new in the play, and the conflict between him and Zeus remains unresolved. The action develops steadily in the same direction, the tension mounting towards its climax in the Hermes scene, without producing a real lysis (resolution). Thus the play is full of pathos (pity, fear, anticipation), but for reversal and resolution we must look outside the play, perhaps to its sequel." Mark Griffith

"Indeed the major achievement of Prometheus is this powerful picture of a resister, a picture that reveals, among other things, that rebels in their stubborn arrogance often become quite similar to the tyrants against whom they are rebelling. Furthermore, by showing how different people react when confronted by a state of rebellion, the play reveals further truths about political behavior in general. Indeed the continuing interest in Prometheus and his situation is lasting testimony to the skill with which Aeschylus presented on stage some of the fundamental truths of this common but complex political situation." Michael Gagarin

"Prometheus Bound is probably Aeschylus’ most famous play because it bears the name of one of the most provocative archetypes of Greek myth. Prometheus, whose name means ‘Forethought,’ stole fire from the gods and gave intelligence and technology to man. In later times, his suffering has symbolized heroic sacrifice in the struggle for justice and man’s salvation. To the Church Fathers, Prometheus represented the suffering Christ while to a writer like Shelley he exemplified the human rebellion against an unjust God." Lois Spatz

"Almost every feature of the twentieth-century prison-camp can be paralleled in the Prometheus Bound, without pressing the evidence. We see here a political offender whose will must be broken by the regime at all costs, by isolation, by torture, by chaining, and even by psychological means. These parallels between the ancient play and the modern prison seem to confirm the fact that Zeus’ regime is represented as an odious tyranny -not only by ancient criteria but also by the standards of all democratic societies in all ages." C.J. Herington

Timeline for Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound

Greece Aeschylus
508/7 Cleisthenes’ Reforms and the Birth of the Radical Democracy c. 525-19 Birth of Sophocles at Eleusis
  c. 499-96 Debut in the theater
490-497 Persian Wars 490 Fought in the Battle of Marathon
478 Founding of Delian League 484 First dramatic victory
470s Themistocles ostracized 480-79 Fought at Salamis and Plataia
  472 Victory: trilogy including Persians
  c. 470 First visit to Sicily
464-45 First Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta 467 Victory with Seven Against Thebes
461 Cimon ostracized and radical political reforms in Athens c. 463 Victory with Suppliants trilogy
454 Delian treasury moved to Athens 458 Victory with Oresteia trilogy
  458-6 Visit to Sicily and death at Gela
  458-6 Production of Prometheus Bound

Map of the Wanderings of Io

IO Map black and white


PDF Prometheus Bound Performance Program (668 KB)

In September, The Classical Greek Theatre Festival presented by Westminster University will mount and tour a new production of Sophocles’ tragic masterpiece Women of Trachis, a play rarely read and infrequently seen in performance. Here is a brief synopsis of the play’s plot:

Because of her beauty, Deianira, the wife of Herakles, had been sought by many suitors. One of these, the centaur Nessos, was killed by Herakles, who then claimed her as his bride. Years later she and her children are exiles in Trachis because of an act of violence by Herakles. Alone now for over a year, she wonders what has become of Herakles and sends her son Hyllos to find out. News arrives that he has conquered the city of king Eurytas in Euboia, and captives arrive from that sack, including Iole, the king’s daughter. Deianeira learns from Lichas that Herakles has sacked the city, not because he had been insulted, but because he wanted the king’s daughter. In jealous despair, she sends Herakles a robe anointed with blood from the centaur’s wound, which turns out not to be the love charm she thought, but an incurable poison. Hyllos brings news of what the robe has done to Herakles, and devastated, Deianeira kills herself with a sword. Herakles is brought onstage in great pain, cursing his wife and asking Hyllos to marry Iole and then to light the funeral pyre that will put him out of his agony. — Storey & Allen

Women of Trachis is directed and adapted by Javen Tanner, and features an American translation by the poet C.K. Williams and classicist Gregory W. Dickerson. The set design was created by Spencer Brown, and costumes were designed and built by Andrea Davenport. The production uses character and neutral masks, and medieval-inspired costumes and music further set a unique tone for this Greek classic.

Follow the Classic Greek Festival Facebook for the latest updates on upcoming productions.

The Westminster Department of Theatre Arts is proud to present the 46th annual Classical Greek Theatre Festival.

Euripides' Herakles

In September of 2016 The Classical Greek Theatre Festival of Westminster University will mount and tour a new production of Euripides' tragic masterpiece Herakles, rarely read and infrequently seen in performance.

In the play Herakles has married Megara, the daughter of the king of Thebes, and is now absent on his famous Labors; meanwhile a usurper, Lykos ("Wolf") has seized power in Thebes and is preparing to kill Megara and her children. Megara asks for time to prepare herself, land, and her children, and as she and Amphitryon (Herakles' stepfather) pray for aid from Zeus, Herakles returns, having completed the last of his Labors. When Lykos returns to take Megara in to her death, he is murdered (off-stage) by Herakles. All seems to have ended happily, but on the palace roof appears Iris (messenger of the gods) and Lyssa (Madness), sent by Hera to continue her wrath against Herakles. Lyssa is unwilling to assail Herakles who has been a defender of the gods, but does her work at the insistence of Iris. A messenger describes how Herakles has gone mad and killed his family. We see a tableau of Herakles and the bodies of his wife and sons, and with the aid of Amphitryon he returns to sanity and the ghastly realization of what he has done. His friend Theseus, whom he rescued from the underworld, arrives to take the stricken hero to Athens." (I.C Storey & A. Allen)


This September, Hugh Hanson will direct a modern production of Herakles featuring a recent American translation by the noted poet Anne Carson. Spencer Brown will create the set design with costumes by Erin West and original music played live by Ryan Fedor.

Production Schedule

Westminster University, Jay W. Lees Courage Theatre: September 2–3 & 9–10, 7:30 p.m.

Utah Cultural Celebration Center: September 17, 7:30 p.m.

1355 W 3100 S
West Valley City, UT 84119

Brigham Young University, DeJong Concert Hall: September 19, 5:00 p.m.

BYU de Jong Concert Hall in the Franklin S. Harris Fine Arts Center
Provo, UT 84602

Weber State University, Wildcat Theatre: September 20, 7:30 p.m.

Wildcat Theater in the Shepherd Union Building
3190 W Campus Dr
Ogden, UT 84408

Red Butte Garden: September 24-25, 9:00 a.m.

300 Wakara Way
Salt Lake City, UT 84108

*An orientation lecture by the dramaturge will precede every show thirty minutes before each performance.

Study Guide to Euripides' Herakles

I: Background


In viewing the Herakles the audience would have recognized several familiar features of the (mythic) story and have been struck by some innovations. The most striking departure from the pre-existing tradition is the sequence of events. According to a likely reconstruction of this earlier version, the murder of the children preceded the labors and may have provided the motivation for them. Euripides' account of the story also necessitates a different motivation for the labors. Amphitryon explains that since he himself is in exile from his native Argos, Herakles acts to 'ease these misfortunes' as to win his own return to Argos. Theseus' later appearance and involvement in this stage of the story must also be novel, since the involvement hinges on his rescue from the underworld. Lykos, it seems is a Euripidean invention, found nowhere in Greek literature before this play and nowhere afterward independent of the play's influence. This new character is of obvious importance for the threat he poses to the family, since this motivates the first section of the play.
Michael Halleran


There is a possibly closer and more revealing connection here, however, between Herakles and Euripides. Herakles, we know, is coming home because his labors are over, and those labors have been identified for the most part as the labors of war. The curious and remarkable fact is that, as he was envisioning and creating the Herakles, the very same may have been true for Euripides and his fellow Athenians. In 424 BCE, Euripides turned sixty and thus would have come home from the war for the last time. Furthermore, only several years later, he would have been joined in military retirement by many or most of his comrades in arms. In the years immediately following the Peace of Nikias (421), not only Euripides but most all of Athens' veterans, like Herakles, put their combat labors behind them and returned to their farms and families and the challenges of peace…While there is no sure date for the Herakles, I believe the analysis here makes such a dating all the more compelling. It is, I would suggest, a play written by a veteran about a veteran for veterans, all of whom are attempting to put war behind them. Not an easy task.
Robert Meagher


He was a many-sided poet; even the fraction of his work that has come down to us -about one-fifth- we can hear many different voices: the rhetorician and iconoclast of Aristophanic travesty; the precursor to Menandrian comedy; the realist who brought the myths down to the level of everyday life; the inventor of the romantic adventure play; the lyric poet whose music, Plutarch tells us, was to save Athens from destruction when surrender came in 404; the producer of patriotic war plays -and also of plays that expose war's ugliness in dramatic images of unbearable intensity; above all, the tragic poet who saw human life not as action but as suffering…It is a vision of the future. In it we see the poet at work as prophet, as seer: vates the Romans called him, a word that means both poet and prophet.
Bernard Knox
Euripidean theater is a genuine theater of ideas, a theater where the emphasis will be on ideas rather than character and where a thesis or problem will normally take precedence over development of character or heroism. Such a theater results in certain changes with regard to plot and character: first, the destruction of the propter hoc structure; secondly, the disappearance of the hero.
William Arrowsmith

II: Synopsis

Herakles has married Megara, the daughter of the king of Thebes, and is now absent on his famous Labors; meanwhile a usurper, Lykos ("Wolf") has seized poiwer in Thebes and is preparing to kill Megara and the children. As she and Amphitryon (Herakles' stepfather) pray for aid from Zeus, Herakles returns, having completed the last of his Labors. When Lykos returns to take Megara in to her death, he is murdered (off-stage) by Herakles. All seems to have ended happily, but on the palace roof appear Iris (messenger of the gods) and Lyssa (Madness), sent by Hera to continue her wrath against Herakles. A messenger describes how Herakles has gone mad and killed his family. We see a tableau of Herakles amid the bodies of his wife and sons, and with the aid of Amphitryon he returns to sanity and the ghastly realization of what he has done. His friend Theseus, whom he rescued from the underwold, arrives to take the stricken hero to Athens.
Ian Storey & Arlene Allen
The plot is not a single and coherent action but a sequence of episodes leading to a series of aborted ends: first death for the hero's wife and children at the hands of the upstart Lycus, then deliverance when Herakles suddenly returns from Hades to save his family and rescue (sic) the tyrant, then crushing reversal when Herakles in god-sent madness murders his wife and children, and finally the uncertain future that awaits the hero in Athens. The final scene of the play describes a situation whose outcome is unknown, and a protagonist whose identity remains undefined.
Francis M. Dunn
The play falls into four movements. A. Waiting for Herakles. B Herakles' return and the murder of Lycus. C. Herakles' madness and the murder of his wife and children. D. Herakles' rehabilitation with the help of the unfailing love and friendship of Amphitryon and Theseus. The four movements may be grouped as two pairs (AB and CD) each setting a problem followed by a resolution.
S.A. Barlow

III: The Character of Herakles

Herakles lies on the margins between human and divine; he occupies the no-man's-land that is also no-gods'-land; he is a marginal, transitional or, better, interstitia l figure. From his birth to his death, Herakles is a clear instance, an extreme instance, of an interstitial figure: both powerful and vulnerable, viewed with awe and admiration; also feared, wherever he goes. He is neither man nor god, so neither man nor god is ever entirely at peace with him. He is an ideal to dream of and a horror story to shrink from.
M.S. Silk
Geoffrey Kirk has pointed out that the legendary Herakles embodies 'to an unusual degree' the contradictions of the hero : humane and bestial, serious and burlesque, sane and mad, savior and destroyer, free and slave, human and divine…The hero who embodies contradictions to an exceptional degree is full of possibility, available for ever new constructions and reinventions, and he is also empty, never a coherent or identifiable individual or character, but a constellation of images.
Francis M. Dunn
The earlier scenes of the play present in succession three different views of the hero: the epinician Herakles, the domestic Herakles, and the violent and criminal Herakles. Euripides enjambs these three views of the hero, emphasizing the separateness of each and the apparent contradictions among them.
H. Foley

IV: Themes and Dramatic Strategies

Herakles is not only military innovator; he is also a hero deeply immersed in domesticity. This theme of family implies an obvious dramatic irony, in that Herakles displays love for his family just before he slaughters them. But the family relationship among males is a major theme of this play.
Ann Michelini
Lyssa, the reluctant agent of Herakles' temporary insanity, is a personification of a condition recognized elsewhere as typical of anyone out of control, from the berserker in battle to various forms of the frenzied, from fanatic, to rabid to erotomaniac.
J. Walton
This powerful tragedy poses two urgent questions. One of them concerns the relationship between gods and mortals. Who is the true father of Herakles? Is it the god or the mortal? The second question concerns the fundamental nature of heroism. Who is the true hero?
James Morwood
Any shedding of human blood, intended or not, created a pollution (miasma) that was regarded as infectious to sight, touch and hearing. Theseus in the name of friendship and in spite of Herakles' protests will disregard the risk of pollution to himself.
C. Wolff
Violence is at the centre of this play. The violence of Lycus. The violence of the gods who themselves are swept along by the hatred of Hera and in some way trapped by it. The violence which has always characterized Herakles' way of life and which makes him vulnerable to the gods' manipulation. Physical violence is a way of life to him, so that when the gods come to destroy him, they are able to do so through patterns of behavior which are already characteristic of him.
S. A. Barlow
In the Herakles the use of the sacrificial motif is more complex: first, a perversion of ritual results in unintentional kin murder; second, the sacrificial crisis is absorbed into a larger ritual crisis which itself includes a perversion of agon, of festal molpe (song and dance), and of the poetic tradition itself.
Helene Foley
Herakles' agones, the agones of war, and the Greek athletic agones idealize physical force and competition the service of civilization, not to undermine it as in this play. The term agon is, of course, a complex one, meaning not only a labor or contest but also a struggle, battle, trial, assembly, speech, debate. and so on.
H. Foley
The play's concluding theme is friendship. Herakles extols it above wealth and power. But this oversimplifies. Theseus' wealth and Athens' power make this friendship viable. Yet a look back will recall that friendship has been shown as helpless (the chorus, Amphitryon, Lyssa), unreliable (the citizens of Thebes, the Greek world) or simply absent. Friendship, philia, in Greek, is a wide-ranging notion, comprising social and political alignments as well as mutual ties and obligations of kin.
C. Wolff
The theme of human weakness comprehends both the extreme old age of the chorus and Amphitryon, and the helplessness of Megara and the children…The play presents the inevitable cycle of human life, a journey between the weakness of childhood and the feebleness of old age. Herakles as son and as parent stands between his father and children as a representative of mature and youthful strength, hebe.
Ann Michelini
The shadow of Hades, of things having to do with death, is cast over the length of the play. There are, from the beginning to end, journeys to and from death, impending death, dirges and laments, dressing for death, killings, corpses, funeral and burial arrangements, contemplation of suicide.
Christian Wolff
No play of Euripides gives more prominence to divinities and to questions of religion that does Herakles. In other plays divine figures in prologue and epilogue interpret the action through genealogy and cult. In Herakles, where the gap between myth and reality is central, the appearance of the deus ex machina is centralized as well, invading the play at its core.
Ann Michelini
Yoking metaphors are very common to express close relationships, and variations of the metaphor occur throughout the Herakles. The dependence of Herakles' children is characterized in a striking new simile (epholkides, a small rowboat) which is then repeated in metaphor form to express his own dependence on Theseus.
S. Barlow
The shifts in mood in Herakles are startling as the action of the play veers from predictable to unpredictable, from comic to tragic, from sanity to lunacy. If we are looking for a pattern—and where would critics be if not for pattern—this is a walking example of Aristotle's peripateia, reversal of expectation.
J. Michael Walton
The Herakles has a final debate (1214-1404), but one which achieves harmony rather than confirms estrangement. This outcome is implicit from the start in the long-standing friendship of the disputants, Herakles and Theseus. The agon between the two is a contest of will; Theseus forces Herakles to resist the suicide that tempts him as a punishment for, and escape from, the shame of having killed his children: he must be true to his arete, must live to surmount dishonour.
C. Collard
Wilamowitz in his pioneering study pointed out that Herakles centers on conflicting concepts of heroic arete, opposing a new, modernizing heroism, adopted by Herakles at Theseus' urging, to the traditional model of violence and force.
Robert Meagher

V: Interpretations

The vicissitudes of life, the role of fortune (not Fortune) are nowhere more forcefully seen than in the play's view of Herakles' life. At the moment of his greatest success, rescuing his family, Herakles suffers a complete reversal of fortune. He becomes not only his family's rescuer, but their murderer. Even the greatest hero is subject to the cruelest and most terrible ruin. Although Herakles cannot control all the elements of his life, he can make some decisions within it. Buoyed by the friendship of Theseus, he is able to reject suicide and go on living. Euripides avoids any mention of a later apotheosis in order to focus on the human Herakles who, sustained by human friendship, can survive in a capricious and harsh world.
Michael Halleran
At the heart of the tragedy there is subversion. Presumed norms of order are called into question: the coherence of mythic and heroic values, political order, the relationship of public and private life. Religion and poetry are part of this too. The first through the gods of myth, especially where questions are raised about justice or theodicy, and through reference to the relationship of gods and humans in the actual practices of cult ritual. The issue of poetry is acutely involved because Euripides' drama and its language are the means by which all these subversions are represented, and this poetry is itself part of the normative tradition.
Christian Wolff
Rather, to Euripides, Herakles' accomplishment was something purely internal and human and therefore vastly more enduring and valuable. The Herakles is a reinterpretation of the meaning of the Herakles myth in those terms. This is made dramatically explicit by the division of the play into two parts. The first, in many respects, is the standard, deliberately run-of-the-mill drama about Herakles, the doer of great deeds, kallinikos, savior and all the rest of the conventional trappings. The second action is the total opposite of the first, whose values it undercuts and reevaluates. The Herakles is a purposeful tour de force whose two actions are related as point to counterpoint.
G. Karl Galinsky
Herakles is a far more complex tragedy than man critics have thought. Euripides exploits the conflicting views of ancient tradition about Herakles' nature and arete. The superlative strength that Herakles exhibited during his labors is laudable, but its transference from wildness into civilization becomes problematic. The play suggests that the solution is provided by the civic (and Athenocentric) context, where individuality and the archaic type of heroic excellence give way to solidarity and the value of community…The development of the image of Herakles, from the invincible here to the courageous bearer of suffering, gives the play an important place in the tradition of Herakles, as a telling example of the humanization and moralization of this figure especially in the later fifth century B.C.
Thalia Papadopoulou
Herakles of all the extant plays raises with greatest urgency the perennial Euripidean questions about the nature of dramatic unity, the role of the gods, and the uses of cult and legend; and it has been impossible for interpreters to proceed, while leaving these central issues unresolved. Yet the very directness with which this play approaches the problems that elsewhere are masked in an irony of indirection makes th elements of its structure almost impossible to miss. As a result, the image of the play in critical literature is clear in general outline, although central areas remain severely distorted or out of focus.
Ann Michelini
But why Herakles, and why now? The answer is simple but compelling. Herakles, as Euripides staged him, is the quintessential hero for our times, the clearest and most revealing of mirrors for America and Americans at war, a war that we are told is without foreseeable end…Euripides' Herakles is first and foremost a warrior, a citizen-soldier in the service of his state. Not surprisingly, then, his images, from the Geometric Period to the 5th century, show him most often armed and outfitted as a warrior. In the 7th century, he commonly appears as the hoplite, though it is also then that he makes is first appearance with a bow.
R. Meagher

Study Questions for Euripides' Herakles

  1. Why do we all love Herakles? What aspects of the myth has Euripides eliminated? How is he the ultimate man of contradictions?
  2. What problems open the play? Why the setting of an altar?
  3. Who is Herakles' father, Zeus or Amphitryon? Who is Zeus in this play?
  4. What is the "motif of the suppliant?" How is the first movement of Herakles a traditional suppliant play?
  5. Who is the Chorus and what roles do they play? How do the Greeks view old age?
  6. What are the purposes of the Chorus' long threnos (lament) delineating the labors?
  7. Euripides adds Lykos to the plot action. Why? How is the the stereotypic tyrant?
  8. What is arete (virtue/courage/excellence) and what in particular is Herakles' arete?
  9. Does it change over the course of the play?
  10. What are the major plot points (dramatic turns in action) of the Herakles?
  11. Who are Lyssa and Iris and how is the divine explored in this play? Who is Hera?
  12. How is this scene a "second prologue" and introduce a "play of divine vengeance?"
  13. What motivates Herakles' destruction? What divine and human causes?
  14. What patterns of imagery are important and permeate the play (e.g. sea & sailing, Dionysiac, hunting, athletic)?
  15. What part to weapons (e.g. bow, arrows, spear, shield, club) play in Herakles?
  16. Is Herakles more archer than hoplite in this play? Is the debate over weapons related to contemporary events?
  17. Who is the Messenger and what are his roles/strategies? How does he tell his story?
  18. What part does Athena play in the play? Who is Athena?
  19. Who is Theseus and how is he a reflection of Athens and its values?
  20. Why does Herakles reject suicide and decide to live?
  21. How does the play end? With what denouement and "gestures of closure?"
  22. What are Euripides' major innovations, radically changing the myth of Herakles?
  23. Is the Herakles "broken-backed" or a play in 2/3/4 movements unified by the (non)presence of Herakles and the themes of friendship and old age?

What they're saying about the Herakles

“Wonderful production of Herakles! Fine acting and an intelligible translation. I was particularly struck with the way the music was worked in. We will never really know what the original scores for the tragedies were like, so starting from scratch is the only way to go if you want the (in my opinion) essential musical component. I did get a chance to chat briefly with Ryan about this and to compliment him. One of the puppeteers did a bit of dancing; the more the better of that (although hard to do much with the puppet while dancing) although once again, since, we'll never know what the dancing was really like, it makes sense to start anew. I am still processing the puppet idea and the more I think on it the better I like it. All in all, I would say it was a powerful performance of a very disturbing and emotion evoking play. Euripides all the way!” - Paul Litka

“The show took me by surprise. It was brisk, energetic, heart-wrenching. A very strong ensemble cast -- including some fine singers. The puppets added a whole other dimension to the play -- very visually expressive. The music too was inventive -- a bit too loud for such a small space as the Wildcat Theater -- I had some trouble hearing the actors -- even though I heeded the advice to sit down in front. Again -- thanks for bringing the play to WSU -- looking forward to next year!” - Kathryn McKay

“Director Hugh Hanson has chosen to move the setting of Herakles from ancient Greece to a post-Vietnam America. The volatile time in our nation’s history was a fitting time in which to place this story, as it deals heavily not only with war-weary former soldiers, but with how it effected those they left behind. Infused into this highly conceptualized production was live music composed by Ryan Fedor and giant Bunraku-style puppets built by Glenn Brown that were operated by the chorus. The level of creativity that went into this production is to be lauded, as it not only enhances the story, but serves it, too. It is a difficult thing to present the realness of tragedy and mental illness with the height that classical Greek theater demands, but Hanson and his cast mount a stirring piece that accomplishes this task.
As the title character, Joel Huff was able to find the balance between real emotion and the showing of tragedy, which is what this play called for. An imposing figure, he was both intimidating and sympathetic as his character goes from the mighty hero we all know to the defeated man bemoaning his fallen state. In one scene wherein Herakles lamented his entire life’s creation, calling, and purpose, he sat on the ground, his legs stretched in front of him in an almost childlike posture that denoted a kind of retrogression brought by grief and madness. It is, again, a tricky balance to strike, and not every actor on the stage was equal to it, but I was pleased that Huff managed to pull it off.
Indeed, apart from Huff and some strong moments from Dave Hanson as Amphytrion, the most magnetic performances came from the chorus. Some lovely singing (in particular on the part of chorus members Savannah Moffat and Vanessa Vega), and 100% commitment to the avantgarde nature of the piece made the chorus members thoroughly entertaining through the piece. As is the custom in ancient Greek theatre, the chorus remain onstage for most of it, and preserving this aspect of the genre was enjoyable because of actors like Moffat and Vega. One unfortunate thing, however, was that the live guitar (played by Fedor), was often quite loud, drowning out the dialogue, whether spoken or sung.” - Elise Hanson

In September of 2015 The Classical Greek Theater Festival of Westminster University will mount and tour a new production of Sophocles' tragic masterpiece Electra. "Sophocles makes the figure of Electra the dynamic centre of his play. She dominates the action by both her physical presence (she is onstage well over 90% of its length) and by her heroic nature. She is central to the plot, which focuses on her faithfulness to Agamemnon and to the idea of revenge, despite persecution from Aegisthus and Clytemnestra; on her extreme reactions to to the false report of Orestes' death; and on her final deliverance from misery through his triumph over her persecutors. Her speaking part is one of the longest in Greek tragedy, during which she expresses the heights and depths of emotion, from bitter hatred to most tender love, from the deepest sorrow to the most exalted joy. Like Antigone she is fiercely loyal to the dead, in her case to her dead father. She is outspoken in her condemnation of his murderers, steadfast in her longing for revenge, unflinching in the face of punishment and even under threat of death." Jenny Marsh

In September 2015, Larry West will direct an ancient/modern production of Electra featuring a recent American translation by Marianne McDonald. Spencer Brown will create the set design with costumes by Erin West and with original music played live by Abby Scott. Melanie Nelson will play Electra, one of the longest and most demanding roles in Greek tragedy.

The production will open at Westminster University on September 4–5 & 11–12 with performances at 7:30 p.m., then tour the state of Utah with venues in the UCCC Amphitheater in West Valley City on Sept. 18 at 7:30 p.m., in Provo at BYU's de Jong Concert Hall on Sept. 21 at 5:00 p.m. and in Ogden at WSU in the Wildcat Theater on Sept. 23 at 7:30 p.m., and then return to Salt Lake City for its residency at Red Butte Garden Sept. 26–27 with performances beginning at 9:00 a.m. An orientation lecture by the dramaturge will precede every show thirty minutes before each performance.

In September of 2014 The Classical Greek Theater Festival of Westminster University will mount and tour a production of Euripides' dark tragedy HECUBA, a play rarely read and seldom performed in recent years.

For many Hecuba is the archetypal mater dolorosa, the sorrowful mother grieving over the loss of her homeland Troy, her husband Priam and her many children. Euripides' tragedy HECUBA tells the story of her sufferings after the fall of Troy, her failure to save her young daughter Polyxena from the Greeks and her discovery of the murder of her youngest son Poydorus. Like so many Greek (and Elizabethan) tragedies, HECUBA explores the causes, methods and effects of revenge, perhaps the primary meaning of the Greek word for justice (dike). Euripides plots Hecuba's journey from vulnerable victim to ruthless avenger by three rhetorical debates, a debate with Odysseus over the life of Polyxena which she loses, a debate with Agamemnon which she wins, and a final debate with her victim Polymestor in which no one wins.

Euripides' HECUBA deals with the aftermath of war where the winners jockey for political power and prestige and the victims are frequently women and innocent children.

Barbara Smith, a professor of Theater at Westminster University, will direct a production of Euripides' HECUBA featuring a recent American translation by Marianne McDonald. Spencer Brown of Westminster University will create the set design with costumes by Valerie Nishiguchi, original music by Andrew Olsen and choreography by Enid Atkinson.

In September of 2013, The Classical Greek Theater Festival of Westminster University mounted and toured a new production of Sophocles' tragic masterpiece Oedipus the King. As many know, the play follows Oedipus' journey to discover the source of the plague affecting Thebes, the killer of the old king Laius, and the truth of his own identity.

Reviews for Oedipus the King
In its 43rd year running the Classical Greek Theater Festival of Utah returned, as it has every decade or so, to that most celebrated of Athenian tragedies, Sophocles' Oedipus the King. Performed during a three-week run at an impressive array of locations across Utah, both in and out of doors, the ambitious production focused on the essentials of good Greek drama: character, action, pity, fear, and suffering. Not that theatrical spectacle was neglected. The show's director, University of Utah theatre professor Sandra Shotwell, made use of convertible robes to transform, in a moment, a certain anonymous Theban chorus member into the prophet Tiresias, another into Oedipus' wife, Jocasta, etc. This was an elegant alternative to the extended entrances which, although a defining feature of Greek drama, are regularly uncomfortable for modern audiences as they patiently wait for the blind seer to traverse many yards on his way to the stage. The production in general formidably maintained that which is distinctive from Greek tragedy (such as a singing and dancing chorus, actors' use of large and stately gestures, etc.) without alienating the audience, which is a recurrent danger when pursuing a historically informed performance. This Oedipus consistently struck the right balance. For example, choral songs were accompanied by an oboe, an originalist nod to the Greek aulos, a double-reed instrument which accompanied ancient tragic and dithyrambic performances. However, the show's original score was composed in a modern European mode, with common pitch intervals and melodic structures that were familiar to performers and audience alike. Such devices and decisions, from music to costume to character, helped make the performance an Oedipus for our age. We audience members were invited to see Oedipus' struggle for justice, prosperity, and above all self-knowledge as our own. As the show's dramaturge and longtime impresario of the Classical Greek Theatre Festival Jim Svendsen noted in his introduction to the performance, Sophocles' Oedipus the King not only offers an unmatched window into the minds and hearts of Athenians during the fifth century BCE; it also holds a mirror up to the achievements—as well as the strife, pride, and ignorance—we see around us today.
Al Duncan, U of Utah
Jim Svendsen, Artistic Director and Dramaturge, gave a scintillating lecture in the Fireplace Lounge, Weber State University, on Wednesday, September 25, 2013, to introduce Westminster's memorable production of Sophocles' Oedipus the King, in the Wildcat Theater. Of the more than twenty Greek plays I've seen performed in Ogden, this one was the best overall performance. Translated by Marianne McDonald into a lively and fast-paced "American English," both the actors and members of the Chorus delivered their lines clearly enunciating the words and projecting their voices in such a way that the audience felt drawn in to the play. Sandra Shotwell is the consummate director! Ryon Sharette (Oedipus) and Elizabeth Summerhays (Jacosta) were supercharged with emotion, especially in the scene where Jocasta gradually learns who Oedipus really is--and the revulsion she experiences from that epiphany. Nikola Muckajev (Tiresias) and Michael Calacino (Creon) also gave memorable performances. Solange Gomes (Choreographer) made the Chorus truly "the voice of the people" in both song and dance, several actors moving in and out of the Chorus effectively by a simple on-stage changing of costumes. Cathy Neff (Composer) worked closely with Jim Svendsen, Sandra Shotwell, and Solange Gomes to compose music "that grew out of the feeling of the text." My hat is off to all who made the evening (lecture and play) such an enjoyable experience!
Bob Hogge, WSU

Oedipus the King is an Eye-Popping Tragedy

September 8, 2013 by Russell Warne

SALT LAKE CITY—At the end of Westminster University's production of Oedipus the King, a chorus of nine actors sang the haunting words, "Call no man happy until that person dies free from sorrow." In other words, no matter how prosperous a person seems to be, until death it is always possible that a single tragedy could wipe out his happiness. Oedipus the King is an ancient Greek tragedy about the king of Thebes, a great city which has been beset by tragedy. When Creon (Oedipus's brother-in-law, played by Michael Calicino) returns from the oracle at Delphi, he explains that the gods have said through an oracle that the previous king's murderer is in Thebes and must be executed in order for Thebes to find peace again. Written by Sophocles, it is probably the most famous surviving Greek tragedy and has political and personal themes that resonate today. Presented by the Classical Ancient Greek Theatre Festival, this production will be touring Utah this month, bringing some of the world's oldest drama to local audiences. Dominating the production is Ryon Sharette as Oedipus. Sharette had a characteristic that I look for in an actor playing a king: dignity. Sharette's characterization of Oedipus started the play at the apex of his power and esteem. This made his eventual downfall more tragic and emphasized the ephemeral nature of wealth and power. Sharette was at his best when interacting with the other male characters in the play: Oedipus's battle of wills with the blind priest (Connor Montgomery) was a highlight of the play, and the confrontation with Creon provided enough dramatic tension to keep my interest for the middle section of the play.

I wasn't as interested in Elizabeth Summerhay's performance as Jocasta, Oedipus's wife. For the most part, Summerhays displayed a very limited range of emotion and reactions that were so subtle that many were lost to me, even though I was only sitting on the third row. This made it feel like Summerhays didn't give Sharette a lot to work with, giving their scenes together a similar tone to those of Oedipus's monologues (of which there are already plenty in the script). Summerhays did much to redeem herself in her final moments as Jocasta, but overall I wish that the only female character in the play had been more interesting.

However, Calacino's portrayal of the priest was fascinating because of the strong personality that Calacino gave his character. Calacino correctly understood that the priest, because of the supernatural understanding of the world, could provide the first challenge to Oedipus's hubris. Calacino showed this through a commanding voice, and the product of his performance was a strong setup of the play's central conflict.

Director Sandra Shotwell's goal with this production was to create a play that would be faithful to the conventions of ancient Greek theatre and show the audience why Oedipus the King is so revered in Western culture. In this she largely succeeded. Although some aspects of ancient Greek theatre (like the masks) are missing, the important pieces are there: the chorus, the limited number of speaking characters on stage at once, the direct addresses to the audience, and more. Thanks to Shotwell's direction (and Marianne McDonald's clear translation of the script), a background in theatre history or the text of the play is not necessary to understand this production.

The major downside with Shotwell's directorial choices is that faithfulness to ancient Greek theatrical conventions makes the production less accessible to modern audiences. Those who may have attended last year's production of Antigone were given a more accessible production set in modern times with contemporary costuming, props, and music that all combined to make the script relevant to today. By maintaining fidelity to ancient Greek performance tradition, Shotwell has created a work that is much closer to a museum piece than last year's Antigone and therefore difficult for modern audiences to relate to. However, the chorus was the major saving grace in making the production accessible. The nine actors—in excellent Greek fashion—effectively told the audience how to feel, what to think, and provided helpful commentary on the action. While their songs sometimes went on too long (and the choreography by Solange Gomes was understated by modern musical theatre standards), the chorus of Oedipus the King was an ideal example of what an ancient Greek chorus should be.

The emphasis of this production is on Sophocles's 2400-year-old script, so the technical elements are pretty sparse (and some, like the lighting won't even be present in performances at some of their other locations). Valerie Nishiguchi's costumes were most prominent, and all of them delineated social class of characters well and were functional enough for the chorus actors to easily dance in. Moreover, Nishiguchi wisely eschewed stereotypical Greek togas (as seen in the Festival's Iphigenia in Tauris two years ago) and instead provided a wide variety of robes, tunics, and other costume pieces that seemed more realistic. The music (composed by Cathy Neff and performed by oboist Hilary Coon) was pleasing and never strayed into the realm of tunelessness (again, unlike Iphigenia in Tauris) or repetitiveness.

Overall, though, Oedipus the King is a production that I would recommend to students and others interested in ancient Greek theatre and seeing a culturally influential play. However, the play has its boring moments that arise from the 2,400-year gulf between modern American and ancient Greece—a difference in cultures that may be too difficult to overcome. But for some people it will be worth the challenge to attend Oedipus the King, and this play, unlike its title character, certainly has no fatal flaws that should keep anyone away from it.

Russell Warne, Utah Theatre Bloggers

In a time of protests and the fall of tyrants Sophocles' Antigone seems both timely and timeless. At its root are the basic conflicts between individual and state, human and divine law, logic and passion, conflicts between the genders and generations. The play first and foremost tells the tale of a young woman whose actions are motivated by family, concern for the unwritten law of the gods and the duty to bury her dead brother, leading directly to her trial and death. But the play also focuses on the tragic downfall of Creon whose single-minded devotion to the state results in the loss of both wife and son. A plot pattern of divine punishment involving Creon emerges from Antigone's self-sacrifice. The double plot action is counter-pointed by one of Sophocles' most rich, dense and lyrical choruses, whose famous "Ode to Man" seems to encapsulate 5th century Athens with all its tensions. This play fascinates philosophers for its interplay of ideas, fascinates the cultural historians for its look at 5th century Athens, and fascinates the modern playgoer for its fast-paced plot, complex and contradictory characters, and almost inevitable movement toward tragic loss and death.

In the fall of 2011, CGTF presents Euripides' Iphigenia in Tauris, the further adventures of the eldest daughter of Agamamnon. Set in an exotic land at the edges of the civilized world, we discover that Iphigenia was not sacrificed at Aulis, but transported far away to serve the goddess Artemis in a bloody and barbaric cult. Still stained with his mother's blood, her brother Orestes is also sent here by Apollo to find purification by bringing a cult statue of Artemis back to Greece. The story tells of a near-sacrifice of brother by sister, their moving reunion, and a thrilling escape plan almost foiled by the barbarian king. Though a tragedy by Greek standards, Euiripides' play in many respects looks like the Shakespearean romances with scenes of melodrama and even comedy.

Anne Stewart Mark will direct a new production of Iphigenia in Tauris, rarely seen in performance, with original music by Ricklen Nobis, choreography by William Richardson and design by Spencer Brown. The Salt Lake City performances feature the premiere production of a new translation by Marianne McDonald and J. Michael Walton. Iphigenia at Tauris will open with a performance at Westminster on September 16 at 5:00 p.m. in the Richer Commons, and then will go on to tour to the Red Butte Garden Amphitheater, with performances on September 17–18 and 24–25 at 9:00 a.m., Brigham Young University on September 19th at 5:00 p.m., and at Weber State University on September 29th at 7:30 p.m.

"Behind every great man is an even greater woman." The Fates have granted King Admetos the privilege of living past his time. But the gift comes at a price - he must find someone willing to take his place when Death comes to take him. His wife Alcestis, not wishing her children to be fatherless, volunteers to go in his stead. In a cowardly fashion, Admetos allows her to do so. Only after he admits his weakness does his friend Heracles come to the rescue. Euripides stunning tragicomedy explores the powerful themes of sacrifice and rebirth.

Directed by Larry West
Andy Rindlisbach as Dionysus
Ryon Sharette as Pentheus
Gabi Gaston as Agave

Arguably the most horrific, powerful and theatrical of all Greek tragedies, the Bakkhai is perhaps also the most controversial and hotly debated Euripidean tragedy. At its center are the god Dionysus, the god of wine, music, dance, theater and ecstasy, and a chorus of initiates who proclaim his greatness and his gifts. In opposition stands the teenager Pentheus, a disturbed and disturbing young tyrant who rejects the god Dionysus and all he stands for. Euripides' plot treats the three confrontations between the two and then follows Pentheus to the mountain where he encounters the maenads and sees what he should not see. Two messenger speeches describe the actions of the offstage maenads, and the final movement of the play shows the audience the macabre results where horror and beauty are bizarrely combined. In the end so many questions remain, especially regarding the ambiguous and paradoxical nature of the god Dionysus.

Directed by Sandra Shotwell
Erika Richardson as Medea
& Brandon Tessers as Jason

"Where our hearts are, there most danger lies." When Medea's love for her husband turns to hate, her fury knows no bounds. Driven by the complex character of its heroine, the plot follows Medea's decision for and plotting of revenge against her husband, Jason. Medea is at once woman, barbarian, witch, hero, and "other" as well as Greek and a symbol of Athens. Motivated by rage, honor, pride, and maternal love, Medea proves a stunning example of the "divided woman." Her rational and emotional monologues probe the challenges of being wife, mother, and human. No gods meddle with this tragic action, and the audience remains riveted on the powerful forces at work within Medea and on the fate of her children, who wander silently on and off the stage.

What is unique about Medea?
  • It has an unusual opening by an old nurse, not a god or hero; a barbarian, not a Greek; and a slave woman, not a male tyrant or aristocrat. Like Shakespeare's Othello, the play is intensely domestic and deals with the destruction of a family.
  • The play has an unique hero, Medea, who is feminine and barbarian. She is subversive and transgresses many Greek boundaries, and appropriates many of the characteristics of the Greek male hero of epic and earlier tragedy.
  • The play has an odd ending, with Medea triumphant and no retribution or payback for her horrific acts of revenge.
Why see Medea?
  • Because of its unusual heroine. Like a prism, Medea exhibits several sides. Like a consummate actress, she plays several roles to manipulate her audience.
  • Because of its spectacular chorus of Corinthian women. They entertain us with their song, poetry and dance, but also provide commentary and perspective on the action, and who act as a hinge between scenes and speakers.
  • Because of the way in which it discusses and challenges the regime values of the ancient Greeks.
  • Because it raises questions of identity, and who we are in terms of gender, family, state and culture.

Directed by Barbara Smith
Lauren Bradley as Helen
& Patrick Harris as Menelaus

In Euripides’ surprising take on the tale, Helen was never in Troy, having been spirited away from Sparta and a fake Helen left in her place to be kidnapped and taken to Troy, thus touching off the 10-year war. We uncover the fate of the real Helen, as she waits in Egypt for news of her husband and fends off a marriage to the Egyptian king. A blend of tragedy and comedy, Euripides gives us a Helen who deserves more praise than censure.

Directed by Hugh Hanson
Nicole Razon as Electra
& Nick Zaharias as Orestes

A stark tale of the vengeance of Elektra and Orestes for the murder of their father Agamemnon by their mother Klytemnestra and her lover. A sequel to last year’s U of U Classical Greek Theatre Festival production, Iphigenia in Aulis.

Elektra tells the story of King Agamemnon’s children, Elektra and Orestes, and their quest for vengeance on the perpetrators of their father’s murder—their mother Klytemnestra and her lover, the new king. Euripides’ version presents two anti-heroes—the neurotic, unbalanced Elektra and her cowardly brother Orestes—in a world where the differences between good people and bad people are not always clear. The play questions the traditional values of the time, which judged a man by his wealth, status, and position.

Directed by Larry West
Richard Scharine as Agamemnon
& Barbara Smith as Clytemnestra

Iphigenia at Aulis is Euripides' compelling story of King Agamemnon who is torn between his love of family and his commitment to war. Deceiving his wife and daughter, he implores them to come to Aulis with his promise of Iphigenia's marriage to Achilles, when, in reality, she will be slain by her father in the interest of the upcoming Trojan War. Iphigenia at Aulis is a story of personal versus political sacrifice.

Directed by Sarah Shippobotham
Ashley Bryant as Clytemnestra

Directed by Sandra Shotwell
Richard Scharine as Oedipus

Oedipus at Colonus is the climax of Sophocles' masterpiece "Theban Cycle." Oedipus the King ended when Oedipus, who had been distraught at discovering that it was he who murdered his father and unknowingly married his mother, had blinded himself. Disgraced, he wanders throughout Greece with his daughter, Antigone. In Oedipus at Colonus, Oedipus regains his dignity and heroic stature. As his final resting place is sought, he is vied for as a talisman and protector by his son and the kings of Athens and Thebes.

Directed by Linda Brown
Joel Richards as Oedipus

All Greek drama, including Oedipus the King, was performed in masks. Made of linen, cork, or wood, no ancient Greek mask has survived the ravages of time, but we do have several representations of Greek masks painted on Athenian vases. Though the origins of masks in the Greek theatre are shrouded in mystery, the fact remains that the mask was an accepted theatrical convention and used throughout both tragedy and comedy.

Described by Aristotle as the "perfect tragedy," Oedipus the King has held our attention for over 2000 years. What is it about this tragic hero, Oedipus, that captures our imagination? We know the story: Oedipus as the agent of the action fulfills the curse that proclaims he will kill his father and marry his mother. It is through Sophocles' brilliance as a playwright that we examine this ancient myth and watch Oedipus' journey to understand the roles of the gods, his identity, and his fate. Through his journey we too discover the "man within the myth."

Directed by Barbara Smith
Jennifer Clark as Antigone
& Lloyd Mulvey as Creon

Insubordination is our worst crime. It wrecks cities and empties homes. It breaks and routs even allies who fight beside us. Discipline is what saves the lives of all good people who stay out of trouble. Ant to make sure we enforce discipline never let a woman overwhelm a king.

Antigone, the daughter of Oedipus, has placed herself on a collision course with her uncle, King Creon. Antigone's brother has died in battle, Creon refuses to give him a proper burial. When Antigone defies Creon, she is banished to a cave. Creon's son, who is engaged to Antigone, comes to her defense but there are dire consequences. Passion. Loyalty. Pride. One of Sophocles' best known and most enduring dramas invites us to ponder the complex moral dilemmas of civil disobedience and the proper exercise of power.

Directed by David Dynak
B. Joe Rogan as Ion
andKathryn Brussard as Creousa

Directed by Helen Richardson
Taft Hart as Cilissa
and Ensemble as Orestes/Electra

Directed by Dawn McCaugherty
Kelly Millwood as Deianeira
& Scott Smith as Herakles